Want to be part of saving the world from a preventable disease? Here are some practical ways to support this effort:
1) Pray. Too
many have suffered, died or lost loved ones because of malaria, and it
doesn’t have to be this way. Intercede for those suffering from the
disease and the families mourning the loss of loved ones. Pray that God
would stir people’s hearts to help put an end to this disease. With your
help, malaria can be eradicated by 2015. Is God leading you to be a
part of this war? If so, prayer is the first line of defense.· read more
So what requirements has God established that lead to a pathway of prosperity? The Bible reveals several overarching keys.
1) Seek Him. Jesus said, “But seek first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you” (Matt. 6:33). All what things?
All the things He mentioned in the verses preceding verse 33—such as
treasures upon earth or what you will eat or drink or wear. We are not
to seek those things first. We are to seek the kingdom first.
What does it mean to seek the kingdom? It is seeking to do His will. His will is what He did on the earth, such as healing all (Acts 10:38), casting out devils (Mark 16:15-18) and preaching repentance (Matt. 4:17). read more
God wants to develop His character in us so we can persevere for the long haul. Yet how he does it is often anything but easy.
We are not born with integrity. Integrity is something that is developed in our lives through the choices we make every day.
is an internal standard and conviction. It is having a sensitive
conscience before God. The more sensitive your conscience is, the more
in tune with the Holy Spirit you will be. As you follow your conscience,
you will develop integrity in your life. True character and integrity
are revealed in the choices you make when no one else is around. read more
Unforgiveness says three things to God (hint: none of them good).
is no fan of an unforgiving spirit—at all. Jesus was clear about it:
“If you do not forgive men their trespasses, your Father will not
forgive your trespasses” (Matt. 6:15, NKJV). Why does He so hate an
unwillingness to forgive?·
·1. It shows an indifference to the greatest thing God did.
“greatest thing” was God sending His Son to die on the cross for our
sins. To be forgiven is the most wonderful thing in the world. But in
order to forgive us, God paid a severe price.·
predict that when we get to heaven we will be able to see, little by
little, what it meant for God to send His Son to die on a cross. We now
see only the tip of the iceberg. We see waves of glory, and these
overcome us, but we’ve seen little.·
God did for us what we did not deserve. He therefore wants us to pass this on to others who don’t deserve it.
2. We interrupt God’s purpose in the world: reconciliation.
God loves reconciliation. He has given the ministry of reconciliation to us, and He wants it to continue.·
we are forgiven, He wants us to pass it on. When we interrupt that, He
doesn’t like it at all. He sent His Son to die on a cross, effectually
calling us by His grace and giving us total forgiveness. But we
interrupt that flow by not passing it on.
·3. God hates ingratitude.·
knows the sins for which He has forgiven us, and He loves a grateful
response. Matthew 18 relates the story of a servant who owed a great
debt. He fell on his knees before his creditor, his master, and said,
“Have patience with me, and I will pay you all” (v. 26). The master took
pity on him, canceling the debt and letting him go. The master knew the
things for which he had forgiven his servant.·
then that same servant went out and found one of his own servants who
owed him a much smaller amount. He grabbed the man and began to choke
him, saying, “Pay me what you owe!” (v. 28).·
fellow servant did exactly what he himself had done; he fell on his
knees and said, “Please forgive me. I will pay you back.”·
the one who had been forgiven a much greater debt refused to extend
forgiveness, and he threw his servant into prison. To think there could
be such ingratitude!·
Word eventually reached the original master, and the unforgiving servant was also thrown into debtor’s prison.·
then added, “So My heavenly Father also will do to you if each of you,
from his heart, does not forgive his brother his trespasses.” (Matt.
knows what we have done. He knows the sins for which He has forgiven
us, the things that no one else will ever hear about. If we turn around
and say, “I can’t forgive that person for what he has done,” God doesn’t
like that at all. He hates ingratitude. read more
God doesn't want to heal only me. His deliverance is available to all.
"Come here, Joyce. I have to give you a ticket for a free lunch," my teacher said. I approached her desk feeling self-conscious and humiliated.
"Your parents have enrolled you in the Title 21 Lunch Program. That means you get free lunches, and they don't have to pay for it."
I nodded and took the ticket, wishing the floor would open up and swallow me. I started to turn away and go back to my seat, but she continued to talk about me.
"You'll never amount to anything. You'll never get out of the projects. You'll always be one of those people with your hand out, looking for a free ride."
Unfortunately, I had come face to face with the ugly reality many believers struggle with. It's called rejection.
Today, as a confident woman and evangelist, I do not allow people to label me, dictate my future or make me feel unworthy of God's love and acceptance. My relationship with Christ is the foundation of my identity.
Rejection is what I call a "fatal distraction" because it is emotionally debilitating and if left unchecked, it can mentally paralyze you. Scripture reveals that "death and life are in the power of the tongue" (Prov. 18:21, NKJV).
Maybe a trusted friend, parent or spouse has rejected you and stripped you of your self-worth. People can be brutal when you don't measure up to their expectations. My teacher rejected me because my family was poor, and in her mind, I was lazy, worthless and a waste of her time.
I believe also that rejection becomes fatal when you take ownership of it. You tend to make life choices based on what you have been told about yourself rather than what God has to say about you.
My teacher told me I would never get out of the projects, and I believed her. I accepted her comments as valid, and from that moment on I began to look at myself through her eyes instead of God's.
What the Bible says is true: "As he thinks in his heart, so is he" (Prov. 23:7). It is imperative that you replace rejection with the life-giving, life-changing Word of God. It will assure you of His unconditional love.
Yes, the words and attitudes of other people can deeply wound you, but please don't allow them to destroy you.
I am grateful to God that His grace did not permit me to live under a cloud of rejection. My life began to change when I moved in with "Big Mama," my maternal grandmother.
She didn't have any better sense than to believe that, regardless of our economic and social status, my family and I were the people God said we were.
Big Mama affirmed me, and pumped me full of God's Word. She constantly told me I was a child of the King, had royal blood flowing through my veins and was going to grow up to be "a mighty woman in the Lord!"
Slowly but surely, through her love and by the sheer power of Scripture, she eradicated those feelings of rejection from my life.
I went on to become a cheerleader and the homecoming queen of my high school. I was even voted "most popular" in my senior class! I eventually graduated college and became a teacher.
Today, I travel the world proclaiming the gospel of Jesus at conferences, churches and in other settings. I am enjoying a life enhanced by the blessings, favor and anointing of God.
If you struggle with rejection and want to be restored, run to the Father. He doesn't want to heal only me—His deliverance is available to all who will turn to Him.
Joyce L. Rodgers is an evangelist and sought-after speaker. She is the author of Fatal Distractions (Charisma House), and the founder of Primary Purpose Ministries in Dallas. Rodgers also serves at an international level with the Church of God in Christ. read more
After spending a decade doing hand-to-hand combat with satanic forces, I have discovered several symptoms of demonic operation. Some of these indicators can be signs of mental illness, which isn't always the result of demonic attack. But when good psychological care from Christian professionals doesn't result in a cure, it is often possible that the person's symptoms could point to demonic operation.
Drawn from the account of the demoniac of Gadara in Mark 5, the first six symptoms are extreme. The man in that passage was controlled by a legion of demons and had been chained in a cemetery because of his erratic and violent behavior. Other signs of demonic activity may be subtler, but they are no less dangerous and shouldn't be ignored.
1. Incapacity for normal living (see Mark 5:1-5). The actions of legion made him unsuitable for normal social interaction with friends and family. An unusual desire for solitude, accompanied by a deep loneliness, will often set in. The person will often become very passive with no desire to change.
2. Extreme behavior (see Mark 5:4). An explosive temper and extreme uncontrollable anger could be signs of demonic activity. These are dangerous behaviors that control the individual and affect surrounding loved ones.
3. Personality changes (see Mark 5:9,12). Changes in personality, extreme or mild, may be evidence of demonic activity. And though all cases of multiple personality may not be demonic, in most cases demon activity is involved.
4. Restlessness and insomnia (see Mark 5:5). The demoniac cried in the tombs "night and day." He couldn't sleep. Insomnia can be a sign of a physical or spiritual problem. God has gifted His children with sleep (see Ps. 127:2). So when you can't sleep night after night and there is no medical reason, the devil may be tormenting you.
5. A terrible inner anguish (see Mark 5:5). Grief and anguish are normal emotions. Yet persistent unresolved anguish that won't leave after normal therapies of counseling, encouragement and prayer could well be demonic.
6. Self-inflicted injury and suicide. In Mark 5:5, the demonized man was cutting himself. And in Mark 9:14-29, a man's son was both deaf and mute because of a demon, and the evil spirit would often throw the boy into fire and water to destroy him. Demons can cause people to injure themselves and even incite suicide.
7. Unexplained illness. When medical testing produces no physical cause for an illness, then we should look to the mind and spirit for answers. Sometimes illnesses are psychological, and good counseling can result in a cure. Other times the battle is with demons. Luke 13:11-16 tells the story of a "daughter of Abraham" who was afflicted by a "spirit of infirmity." Although she was a child of God, she was tormented by illnesses caused by this class of demons.
8. Addictive behavior. Addiction to alcohol, drugs, sex, food, gambling and other things opens the door to demonic influence and control. I'm not saying demons cause all of these problems. But anything that causes one to be out of control opens that person to infernal control.
9. Abnormal sexual behavior. The spirit of harlotry is mentioned several times in Ezekiel 16:20-51. This spirit infected the nation of Israel with the sins of Sodom and even motivated the people to sacrifice their own children. Homosexuality, adultery, fornication and even infanticide were all inspired by the spirit of harlotry (see Hos. 4:12). And nations and families are sold into spiritual bondage by the witchcraft of this spirit (see Nah. 3:4). When we play around with sexual sin, we open ourselves to this demonic spirit. We must battle this principality that dominates our nation.
10. Defeat, failure and depression in the Christian life. It is Satan's purpose to rob us of the victorious life that is ours in Christ (see 2 Cor. 2:10-14). This symptom is often manifested by an inability to praise and worship, which is a weapon of warfare. In Psalm 106:47, David asks God for salvation so he could "triumph in [God's] praise."
11. Occult involvement and behavior. Occult involvement is clearly a symptom of demonic control. Deuteronomy 18:9-12 catalogs the works of the occult, including child sacrifice, fortune-telling, sorcery and calling up the dead.
12. Speech difficulties. In Matthew 9:32-33, Jesus rebuked a demon, and the mute man was able to speak. Speech difficulties may be physical, emotional or mental, but in some cases they are demonic. Extreme language and cursing also may be prompted by the enemy.
13. Doctrinal error. First Timothy 4:1 warns that in the last days deceiving spirits will teach the doctrines of demons. Today religious cults and charlatans abound. The reason these deceivers draw many people is the power of the demonic that teaches them.
14. Religious legalism. In Galatians 3, the church at Galatia had forsaken a faith ministry that resulted in the miraculous for a law ministry of rules and regulations. Paul classified this error as witchcraft. Some deeply religious people are under the bondage of tradition, man-made rules and outward appearances. Demons thrive in this kind of environment, especially demons of control. Whenever something is substituted for faith in the finished work of Christ, it is a doctrine of demons. read more
God is shifting the church from one seasonal pIatformto another. Are we ready?
There is an uneasy feeling in
evangelicalism today that everything is changing. Long-held certitudes
are being challenged both within and without the Christian faith. The
way things were even 10 years ago is no longer the way things are today.
Western Christianity has reached a
critical juncture. We have come to the end of the line—not the end of
the line for Christianity, but the end of the line for the track we
have been on.
We are like people on a subway who have
taken a train as far as it will go. The car has stopped, but we have
not exited. We’re sitting in the terminus, waiting for the train to
start moving again.
We have two choices.
We can stay on the train that’s going
nowhere, or we can disembark, find our way through the confusing
labyrinth of the new station, locate the proper platform for continuing
our journey and catch the train that will take us farther down the line.
It reminds me of times I’ve been in Paris traveling across the city on
the metro system. If I want to get from Notre Dame to Montmartre, I
can’t do it on one train. I have to get off, find the correct platform
and catch a new train. If you’ve never done it before, it can be
This could be a prophetic analogy for
the heightened uneasiness we’re feeling in this first part of the 21st
century. We need to transfer to a new train, and we’re not quite sure
We can be quite certain of one thing,
however: The train we have been on will not carry Christianity forward
in a compelling or engaging way—no matter how enthusiastically we sing
“Give Me That Old Time Religion” as we sit motionless on the track.
It’s easy to be disconcerted by all
this. During a time of pronounced uncertainty it is tempting to succumb
to nostalgia, to long for some point in the past that we identify as
the “glory days.” But we cannot go back.
The healthy practice of recognizing
the contributions of the past and building on them is not the same as a
regressive attempt to return to a bygone era.
Neither is revivalism the answer. Too
often it is a naive attempt to recapture a particular past. It’s like a
Renaissance fair—nice entertainment for a pleasant afternoon, but you
can’t live there.
An idealized memory of the past is not
a vision that can carry us into the future. Nostalgic reminiscing is
for those who no longer have the courage or will to creatively engage
with contemporary challenges and opportunities. All of this is related
to the critical juncture we’ve come to in the course of Western
then, what is this train we’re on that is stuck at the station? I think
it can be summed up as “Christianity characterized by protest.” We need
to face reality—the “protest train” has come to the end of the line.
It’s been 500 years since the
Protestant Reformation—when Christianity first boarded this protest
train. At the beginning of the line, it was a way forward from the
moribund corruption of medieval Catholicism.
But for all the good the Reformation
did (and it was absolutely necessary!) we must understand it for what
it was. It was a debate between Roman Catholics and Protestant
reformers over the theology and practice of the medieval church, a
debate among Christians within Christendom.
And that’s all well and good.
But we no longer live in that
Christendom—the one in which Christianity was the default assumption of
an entire age, continent and culture. We live in an era that is, if not
post-Christian, certainly post-Christendom.
Yet we make the mistake of trying to
engage our postmodern secular culture in the same way the reformers
engaged medieval Catholicism—through protest. This approach doesn’t
make sense and is no longer tenable.
The Reformation, though it brought
necessary reform, placed us on a trajectory to become angry protestors.
Protest is deeply ingrained in our identity. It’s in our DNA. But
Protestant reform is no longer the central issue and is not the
problem. The problem is our uncharitable and ugly protest attitude.
attempt to engage post-Enlightenment secular people with the gospel of
Jesus Christ by protesting their sin and secularism is madness. It’s a
method guaranteed to fail. It is simply not the way for the church to
move forward. We are in danger of being reduced to angry protesters
sitting in the station on a train going nowhere, shouting at people who
long ago stopped listening to us.
If we are going to persuade a
skeptical world of the gospel of Jesus Christ and make a compelling
case for Christianity in this century, we will have to do so on their terms. We can no longer pretend to be living in medieval Christendom or frontier America.
Simply citing chapter and verse and
shouting, “The Bible says so!” is going to be largely ineffective.
Telling a secular world that does not possess an a priori acceptance of Scripture that Jesus is the way because John 14:6 says so is seen as circular reasoning and unconvincing.
To persuade postmodern Westerners that Jesus is the
way we must actually demonstrate the Jesus way as a viable alternative
lifestyle. This lifestyle will have to be characterized, not by angry
protest and polarizing politics, but by faith and hope and—most of
Because of our tradition of protest
inherited from the Reformation, as well as the American Revolution, we
have an ingrained infatuation for the angry dissenter who can “tell it
like it is.” Whether it’s delivered by a pundit, politician or
preacher, the rant has become something of a contemporary art form.
But this kind of populism plays well
only with those who already agree with us. It’s cathartic and can
“energize the base,” as we say, but in the end the angry preachers
stuck in a paradigm of protest only further alienate an already
disinterested culture. They deepen the destructive “Us vs. Them”
attitude endemic in American evangelicalism.
Have we embraced, due to our
frightened response to uncertainty and shifting culture, an angry “Ann
Coulter Christianity” and made apostles of Rush Limbaugh, Glenn Beck
and Sean Hannity without recognizing they are simply entertainers and
profiteers in America’s culture war? If so, we had better disembark the
protest train before we are marginalized into complete irrelevance.
Now that we are a full decade into the
third Christian millennium, it’s time to take stock of a movement that
in Western culture isn’t moving forward much anymore. How then have
American evangelicals come to be identified?
Largely by our protests and our politics. We are mostly known for what we are against
and what political positions we hold. We have unwittingly allowed our
movement to be defined in the negative and to be co-opted as a useful
tool in the cynical world of partisan politics.
don’t we have something better to do? Don’t we have some good news to
tell? Isn’t it time for us to become identified by something more
refreshing and more imaginative than angry protest and partisan
politics? Might it not be time for a new reformation? And this time,
not a reformation in the form of protest, but one in some other form?
The purpose of reformation actually is re-formation—to recover a true form. What is the true form of Christianity? It is the cruciform—the shape of the cross. The hope I see for Christianity in the 21st century is in a “cruciform reformation.”
Instead of using protest as a pattern,
what if the church reformed itself according to the cruciform? What if
we responded to hostility and criticism, not with angry retaliation,
but in the Christ-like form of forgiving love? What if instead of
“fighting for our rights” we laid down our rights and in love simply
prayed, “Father, forgive them”?
Or ask yourself these questions: Does
the protest paradigm look like the cruciform? Does the Christian who
wants to protest every perceived slight with an angry petition remind
you of the Christ who forgave His enemies from the cross? Does our
grasping for power and privilege conform to the image of the crucified
Five hundred years ago Martin Luther
and the other reformers looked to Scripture as the basis for reforming
the church. I suggest we do the same. And I suggest we center our
reading in the Gospels.
The great 20th century Swiss
theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar wrote: “Being disguised under the
disfigurement of an ugly crucifixion and death, the Christ upon the
cross is paradoxically the clearest revelation of who God is.”
He’s correct. The cross is the full
and final revelation of God. His nature of forgiving love is supremely
demonstrated at the cross. When Jesus could have summoned 12 legions of
angels to exact vengeance, He instead prayed for His enemies to be
Vengeance was canceled in favor of
love. Retaliation was overruled in favor of reconciliation. Protest was
abandoned in favor of forgiveness. This is the cruciform.
That evangelical Christianity has
become identified by protest and politics instead of forgiving love is
nothing short of scandalous. The disreputable behavior of celebrity
preachers notwithstanding, the greatest scandal in the evangelical
church is that we are no longer associated with the practice of radical
It should be obvious that forgiveness
lies at the heart of the Christian faith. That should be obvious from
the simple fact that at the most crucial moments the gracious melody of
forgiveness is heard as the recurring theme of Christianity.
Consider how prevalent forgiveness is in Christianity’s seminal moments and sacred texts.
As Jesus teaches His disciples to pray
they are instructed to say, “Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive
those who trespass against us” (see Luke 11:4). As Jesus hangs on the
cross we hear Him pray—almost unbelievably: “Father, forgive them”
(Luke 23:34, NKJV). In His first resurrection appearance to His
disciples, Jesus says, “If you forgive the sins of any, they are
forgiven them” (John 20:23). And in the Apostles’ Creed we are taught
to confess, “I believe in the forgiveness of sins.”
Whether we look to The Lord’s Prayer,
or Jesus’ death or resurrection, or the great creeds of the church, we
are never far from the theme of forgiveness. If Christianity isn’t
about forgiveness, it’s about nothing at all. And I am afraid that if
we don’t leave the protest train, we are in danger of making
Christianity about ... nothing at all!
have come to the end of an era. We are in a time of transition. Things
are uncertain. Old assumptions are being re-evaluated. We feel
uncomfortable. We are trying to make our way through a confusing metro
station we’ve never been to. We are tempted to cling to the familiar
and stay on the train that has brought us here.
That is not the way forward. We have
to find the new platform and catch the next train. The platform is
forgiveness. The train is a cruciform reformation. If we leave the
paradigm of protest, position ourselves on a platform of radical
forgiveness and get on board with a cruciform reformation, the 21st
century will be full of hope, promise and unparalleled opportunity for
the church of Jesus Christ.
Brian Zahndis pastor of Word of Life Church in St. Joseph, Mo., and author of What to Do on the Worst Day of Your Life. His next book, Unconditional? (Charisma House), is scheduled to release in January.
The Protestant Reformation began in Germany in 1517 with Martin Luther, a Saint Augustine friar and professor. Luther wrote and published The Ninety-Five Theses as a protest of clerical abuses aimed at the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
He is said to have posted his Ninety-Five Theses
to the main door of The Castle Church in Wittenberg. At the time, the
church was a repository for one of Europe’s largest collections of
Catholic relics. The storehouse included some extreme oddities such as
vials of the milk of the Virgin Mary—but viewing the antiquities was
said to bring official relief from temporal punishment for sins in
However, Luther was primarily disgusted
with “indulgences.” The Catholic Church sold these as part of a
fundraising scheme and propagated them upon the people in both
convoluted language and theology:
Buying an indulgence would enable
the payee to partly or wholly avoid—depending on specific Church
restrictions—God’s temporal punishment due for sins committed but
Numerous religious voices fell in line to support
Luther’s initial protest. The discontent spread quickly, due largely to
the efficiency of the printing press. It enabled copies of The Ninety-Five Theses and other documents and ideas to be disseminated widely.
Paralleling the events of the
Reformation in Germany was a similar movement in Switzerland under
Ulrich Zwingli, a Zurich pastor.
Some of Zwingli’s followers, however, believed the German Reformation was too conservative.
Ultimately, ensuing protests in
assorted locations spawned new groups or movements—such as Calvinism,
which has its basis in the writings of John Calvin, a French theologian.
In 1521, Luther was excommunicated from the Church by Pope Leo X, who had also condemned the Reformation.
Well, the world as we know it did not end last weekend –
much to the chagrin of a few Bible teachers.
I’ve been around long enough to remember the flurry of
interest in a book titled 88 Reasons Why
the Rapture Will Be in 1988. When that year passed, the author followed up
with predictions that Jesus would come in 1989 . . . then 1993 . . . then
Now another misguided prognosticator suddenly became famous
(or infamous) by assuring us all that Judgment Day would definitely be last
Saturday, May 21. What now will be the fallout for his devotees?
Don’t get me wrong. A time of worldwide judgment is indeed
coming. Scripture is very clear about that. Paul confidently proclaimed, “God has appointed a day on which He will
judge the world in righteousness by that Man whom He has ordained. He has given assurance of this to all by
raising Him from the dead” (Acts 17:31). But we get into trouble – big
trouble – when we become more definitive than the Bible. Jesus said no one
knows the day nor hour of His return to Earth (Matt. 24:36). read more
We all have unseen weakness
that could make us vulnerable to the enemy’s attack. Here’s how to be on your
Many people who by the grace of God have never been "had" by the devil wrongly assume that all departures from godliness are nothing but rebellion and proofs of inauthenticity. They have no idea of the suffering involved when someone with a genuine heart for God slips from the path.
I don't know how many times I've repeated the statement I'm about to make, but I'll keep saying it until at least one skeptic hears, "Not everyone in a stronghold of sin is having a good time." read more
Is not this the kind of fasting I have chosen: to loose the chains of injustice and untie the cords of the yoke, to set the oppressed free and break every yoke? ... Then your light will break forth like the dawn, and your healing will quickly appear; then your righteousness will go before you, and the glory of the Lord will be your rear guard. —Isaiah 58:6, 8
First, fasting must be secret (Matt. 6:16-18). When we are fasting we must not let the slightest hint of it leak out. Only God needs to know.
The second thing is that fasting must be special. I question if it ought to be done regularly. I don't see fasting as something to be done whether you really need to or not, for example, making a commitment to fast every Friday. I think if it is used that way it will lose its significance.
Third, as we have seen, fasting must have a purpose. We must know what we want to achieve. It's not like taking vitamins in the general hope that they will do us good.
The fourth point is that fasting must be sensible. Some people cannot fast for medical reasons. For example, if you are a diabetic, then that ought to disqualify you. And we must never fast without drinking plenty of liquids. There are various degrees of fasting. You can cut out one meal or two meals, or fast for a whole day or a number of days. However, anyone seeking to fast for more than two or three days should first seek the advice from an experienced Christian minister or counselor.
A fifth thing is that fasting must be spontaneous: that is, voluntary and from the heart. In my opinion, there could be danger in corporate fasting, for some may be acting reluctantly and under pressure.
The next thing I need to say is that fasting must be sacrificial. Isaiah 58 describes people who fasted but who loved it.
Finally, we must be quite clear about our motives, and we must have no mixed motives.
Fasting by itself is no magic answer to our problems. It is only effective when it symbolizes a deep longing for spiritual reality, and it demands a life of holiness and obedience to God. "Then," says God in Isaiah 58:8, "shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily" (KJV).
Excerpted from Worshipping God (Hodder & Stoughton, 2004). read more