Horses or Zebras?
During my medical training my professors taught me how to diagnose various diseases. When faced with a difficult case, I was advised to think first of what was most common and consider that diagnosis. They would also ask, “When you hear hoof beats behind you, do you think of horses or zebras?” The answer is, of course, “Horses.” Horses are the common disasters and the zebras are the uncommon and man-made disasters.
Some basic principles apply to most emergencies. In fact, if you plan ahead for what I call “normal contingencies,” you will often find yourself taking the same steps you would take if preparing for a disaster. When planning for potential disasters, think practically. Anticipate what natural disasters you are most likely to encounter. Approach preparation from a standpoint of doing the prudent thing, not from a basis of fear.
Good planning will help relieve much anxiety. Be ready to handle disasters common to where you live, such as fires, flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, extreme cold, extreme heat, etc. (horses). If you are prepared to respond to these common disasters, then you will most likely be better prepared to face man-made disasters, such as water pollution, toxic waste spills, arson, nuclear plant malfunction or even terrorism (zebras).
Once you have identified the types of hazards you are most likely to encounter, go over each of the hazards and review, discussing matters at age-appropriate levels with your family. Make sure everyone understands his or her role if specific assignments are given to different family members. Include other common hazards even if you do not specifically run a high risk where you live. Most people travel and may face hazards while away from home.
It’s impossible to address every aspect of how to prepare for crisis in a single article. Because of this, I highly urge you to get a copy of my book, When All Plans Fail, which goes into detail about disaster preparation from a Christian perspective (including a 21-day action plan). For this article, however, let me stress some of the most important steps you should take to be ready for disasters. The top four are water, food, money and grab-and-go bags.
1) H2O: What You Need to Know
Having sufficient safe drinking water available is at the top of the list for essential life and health in time of crisis. One half to one gallon per person, per day is needed. Either the water needs to be stored or you must have access to fresh water and have the ability to purify and/or filter available water should the water be contaminated. Water purification capability is essential. In addition to boiling water, there are a number of water filtration systems, tablets and solutions that will purify contaminated water.
2) Don’t Get Caught With Your Pantry Down
The second priority in preparation is having adequate food on hand. A minimum of two to four weeks of food should be stored in your home, though I recommend three to six months if at all possible. Rotate your food supplies to prevent food being outdated. Store what you eat and eat what you store.
Various food storage options include bulk foods (whole grains, dried grains, beans, etc.), dehydrated foods, commercially canned goods, peanut butter, MREs (meals ready to eat) and freeze-dried foods. Some freeze-dried foods can be stored fore more than 20 years. Don’t forget to include a manual can opener. For whole grains, obtain a manual whole-grain grinder. Have at least three days of food in your grab-and-go bags at home and in your vehicles. Don’t forget baby and pet foods. Also consider gardening and home canning.
Plan ahead to make sure you have thought through on how you will cook your food should you lose access to your normal means of cooking. There may be power outages, flooding and even limited access to fire wood. Alternative cooking options in emergencies include charcoal grills, camp stoves, candle warmers, fondue pots, campfire or fireplace cooking and solar cooking.
3) Cash Is King
The third priority is having enough money on hand to cover immediate expenses in the event of a crisis. In times of disaster or evacuation, ATMs and cash registers at stores may not be available due to loss of power. Have at least $500 stashed at home in small bills (ones, fives, 10s and 20s). You don’t want to pay for a $5 item with a $100 bill. Keep a full month’s expenses at home if you can afford to do so.
4) Grab-and-Go Bags
Grab-and-go bags are needed at home, in vehicles and at the workplace. Specific recommendations are too lengthy for this article and will vary somewhat from person to person. Before waiting to get all your “ducks in a row,” at least have a bare-bones emergency bag. Recommended items include: portable water purification system, water purification tablets or liquid, flashlight (small, waterproof), whistle, small first-aid kit, good walking shoes, work gloves, strong cord or rope (550-lb test, min. 30 ft), multi-tool, waterproof matches, duct tape, bandage scissors and extra money.
9-11, 911, 91:1 (The Secret Code for Believers)
Developing a keen sensitivity to the Holy Spirit is a part of disaster preparation. I heard of an incredible story relating to the time when the I-35 westbound bridge into Minneapolis collapsed in 2007, tragically causing 13 deaths. There could have been many more.
I was forwarded an e-mail with the testimony of a Christian young man who was within 100 feet of the bridge just before it collapsed. He said he had experienced a vision of the event before it happened. He felt as if the Holy Spirit was telling him to “stop.” He obeyed. Irate drivers behind him honked their horns. Some tried to drive around his car at first, until the bridge suddenly gave way before their eyes. People went up to him afterward to thank him for stopping.
It’s amazing to think that the lives of others may be so greatly affected by our sensitivity to hear from the Lord, especially during times of disaster. It is an awesome responsibility to remain spiritually sensitive for the protection of our family, our neighbors and ourselves.
The wisdom of being prepared for foreseeable difficulties—natural or man-made disasters—is obvious. Paying attention to seemingly minor details can make a major difference. And as a physician, I know only too well the truism that “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”
The numbers 9-11 instantly conjure up in everyone’s mind the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York City on Sept.11, 2001. With interest I note that when we have an emergency we are instructed to dial 911. For believers, we have our own emergency code: Psalm 91:1. “He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty.”
We are facing daunting days ahead in our nation and around the world. I encourage you to seek the face of the Lord with renewed intensity to prepare yourselves and your families for the days ahead.
Paul R. Williams, M.D., was on the faculty of the University of South Florida College of Medicine for 15 years. He was the founding director of HealthCare Ministries of the Assemblies of God World Missions from 1984 to 1994, and the first medical director of Operation Blessings in Virginia, Beach, Va. In 1997 he founded International HealthCare Network, which facilitates and networks organizations in humanitarian outreaches and ministry. For more information about his book and workbook, visit whenallplansfail.com.
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